Lilly Pijnenburg Muller

Thesis title:

How is cybersecurity made? A socio-technical co-production


This thesis questions how threat perceptions shape future politics with focus on a new type of security, that of cybersecurity. Weaving together themes of security, technology and power it examines the socio-technical production of cybersecurity from a relational perspective. Questioning how visions of cybersecurity are created and sustained in the communities that articulate them it attains to the relation between (threat detection) technology and analysts in the making thereof. Exploring the process of threat construction, issues of secrecy, power, violence and governance are problematised. Promoting cybersecurity as a multifaceted set of standardised practices acted out by many different actors to make cyberspace in/secure; how these routine practices shape cybersecurity are made visible.



Lilly Pijnenburg Muller is a doctoral student in International Relations funded by the London Interdisciplinary Social Science Doctoral Training Partnership (LISS DTP), in addition she is the co-convenor of the Cyber Security Research Group. Her research interests are Critical IR-Theory, cybersecurity, security practices, and risk/threat construction.

Her research looks at the intersection of technology, politics and security practices, with specific interests in the politics and governance of cybersecurity. She is particularly interested technologies role in shaping and enabling global security practices.

Before joining Kings College London she worked as a Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and as a James Martin Fellow the Global Cyber Security Capacity Building Centre (GCSCC) at the University of Oxford.

Research interests
• Critical IR theory
• Science and Technology Studies
• International political sociology
• Cybersecurity
• Cyberwarfare
• Expertise
• Practice
• Global governance

Social Media:

Personal webpage:

First supervisor:

Tim Stevens

CASE partner:

Norton Rose Fulbright LLP


9 – Global Order, Violence & Security




Research Articles:

Lilly Pijnenburg Muller (2016). «Power play and governance in cyberspace» Internasjonal Politikk, 74, 4: 1–23.

Media articles:

Cyber attacks: who is responsible?

Book chapters:

LP, Muller, How to govern cyber security? The limits of the multi-stakeholder approach and the need to rethink public-private cooperation, Friis et al. Eds. (2016) Conflict in Cyber Space: Theoretical, strategic and legal perspectives

Policy papers:

LP, Muller (2019) Military Offensive Cyber-Capabilities: Small-State Perspectives

LP, Muller (2018) Cyber-weapons in International Politics: Possible sabotage against the Norwegian petroleum sector

LP, Muller (2015) Upholding the NATO cyber pledge Cyber Deterrence and Resilience: Dilemmas in NATO defence and security politics

LP, Muller (2015) Cyber Security Capacity Building in Developing Countries

LP, Muller (2015) Securing Cyberspace. Coordinating Public-Private Cooperation